In all examined energy systems heat and thermal energy play an important role. The general procedure, which is illustrated in the adjacent figure using the example of a heat pump, is similar in all projects: For a system under consideration a model is developed. Then the transferred energies or energy flows are determined. From the energy balance an exergy balance can be derived, which is often more meaningful. Exergy is the “valuable” share of energy. The highest potential for improvement within a system is often found at the locations with the highest exergy losses. Finally, it is possible to connect exergies to costs in order to conduct an economic evaluation.
Pumped Heat Electricity Storage (PHES)
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